earthquake in armenia 1988

For more of her work visit http://www.bethanyaugliere.com. On 7 December 1988 a colossal earthquake hit Armenia, leading to the deaths of 20,000 people. On December 7, 1988, an earthquake shattered the north of Soviet Armenia. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). Officials think that it could take 10-15 more years to get rid of all the temporary shelters, but there still isn't a plan to ensure housing security for all of the displacement caused by the 1988 earthquake in Armenia and its aftermath. In northern Armenia, the 600-kilometer-long Lesser Caucasus Mountains experience north-south compression as the two plates converge, giving rise to seismic active in recent times: a magnitude-5 earthquake hit Spitak in 1967, a magnitude-5.7 earthquake struck Leninakan (now Gyumri) in 1926, and a magnitude-5.3 event hit Kirovakan in 1911. However, 30 years later, thousands remain living in temporary houses or "domik" shanties created from old shipping containers. Post-earthquake studies have revealed that roughly once every 50 years, Armenia can expect an earthquake exceeding VII on the Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik (MSK) scale, which evaluates the severity of ground shaking, somewhat similar to the Modified Mercalli scale, and suggested that building code standards should be improved. “Despite the fact that all necessary measures are being taken … Mikhail Gorbachev believes that when a people is suffering, he has to be there and he himself has to lead the efforts.” The quake came on the heels of Gorbachev’s historic speech at the United Nations in which he called for an end to the Cold War and said that Soviet Troops would withdraw from Eastern Europe. Soviet officials had claimed that restoration would be completed within two years. The effects of the earthquake were absolutely devastating. The … Meanwhile, the first rescue teams didn't arrive until December 10, with chances of survival falling under 50% within six hours after an earthquake. Latest earthquakes in or near Armenia past 30 days. Red Cross flights brought materials from Eastern and Western Europe, and Britain sent firemen and rescue experts as well as two planes with more than 50 tons of food and medical supplies. While most electrical substations were repaired within a week, electricity was not restored to many residences for months, according to a 1991 report by engineers for the Electric Power Research Institute. (December 7, 1988) Earthquakes have frequently hit Armenia throughout history. Even Pope John Paul II donated $100,000. According to EVN Report, in Leninakan, 18,000 people were found in the ruins, "out of which 8,000 survived." This was the first time the Soviet Union had accepted help from the U.S. government since World War II. Although the Soviet Union had said that reconstruction should take roughly two years, by 1989, it was clear that reconstruction was going to take at least nine more years. Even decades later, about 500 victims of the earthquake remain living in what was intended to be temporary, makeshift housing. On the morning of December 7th, it became clear that the previous quakes were merely foreshocks to the main quake, which hit at 11:41 AM local time, measuring a magnitude of 6.8-7.0. Following an appeal for assistance from … © 2008-2020. According to the book, Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, the man answered: “What do my hands matter, everything I cherish is under there – my son, my daughter, my wife and my mother.” Throughout the 20th century, there were several earthquakes throughout Armenia, but none caused destruction comparable to the earthquake that struck Spitak in 1988. Despite the international relief efforts, the earthquake zone is still considered a disaster zone, and rebuilding has been slow, with recovery hampered by the collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent war with Azerbaijan. Gorbachevcut short his trip to fly back to Moscow. The quake, known as the Spitak earthquake, killed between 25,000 and 60,000 people, injured up to 130,000, and left more than 500,000 homeless. Rumbles from the quake were felt as far as Georgia and Azerbaijan. “In the Armenian Republic, thousands of people have died,” Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard A. Shevardnadze said at a news conference on Dec. 8, 1988. However, as of 2020, thousands of people in the region still live in the temporary shelters provided in the aftermath of the earthquake. Meanwhile, Gorbachev's government tried to distract people by shifting the blame for the earthquake's destruction onto former leader Leonid Brezhnev rather than address its own shortcomings. What follows is a passage from his memoirs pertaining to that day. A strike-slip component in the rupture meant that the blocks also moved laterally past each other, rather than just up or down. All rights reserved. Few seismologists thought an earthquake as powerful as the one in 1988 was possible in the region, according to a 1989 review paper published in Nature. After the weight has been lifted and blood flow is restored, these cell contents start to flow through the body and can lead to cardiac and renal failure. Since most of the buildings had high seismic vulnerability, the newspaper Pravda attributed the scale of the destruction to the poor quality standards of buildings made during Brezhnev's term, according to EVN Report. In June 1679, an earthquake with an epicenter in Garni yielded aftershocks that lasted until October and at least 1,228 people died in the village of Kanaker. Rescue teams and medical supplies were immediately dispatched to Armenia from the United States, France, India, and Cuba. It was followed four minutes later by a magnitude-5.9 aftershock; together these quakes caused extensive damage across a 400-square-kilometer area. Although some people were rescued as long as 19 days after the earthquake, thousands succumbed to hypothermia in the freezing winter conditions. The U.S. — and the world — responded. According to EVN Report, some of the delay was caused by "local bureaucracy wait[ing] for orders from the top." Spitak was almost completely demolished and the towns of Leninakan (Gyumri), Stepanavan, and Kirovakan (Vanadzor) were all greatly affected. Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia – ABC News The town of Spitak was demolished; the nearby towns of Kirovakan and Leninakan also experienced heavy destruction, while rumbles were felt in Azerbaijan and Georgia. According to Nature, not many seismologists thought that an earthquake as severe as the Spitak earthquake "was possible in the region." On Dec. 6, 1988, a magnitude-3 earthquake hit northern Armenia, though it received little attention because of the perceived lack of serious seismic risk in the area. Armenia is a small country about the size of Maryland that borders Turkey to the west, Iran to the south, Azerbaijan to the east and Georgia to the north. According to Associated Press, the plane was carrying medical supplies and tragically all seven crew members died in the crash. Water and electrical supplies were also cut off and although some of the electricity was repaired within a week, according to the Electric Power Research Institute, many residences didn't have their electricity restored for months after the earthquake. In Armenia, the Arabian plate abuts against the Eurasian (Europe-Asia) plate. On December 6th, 1988, the northern region of Armenia was hit by a magnitude 3.0 earthquake at 3:27 in the afternoon followed by a larger aftershock that measured 5.8 almost five minutes afterward. Abstract The study attempts to identify predictors of injuries among persons who were hospitalized following the Armenian earthquake of 7 December 1988. Labor crews that had come from other Soviet republics simply returned home "without fulfilling their commitments.". According to "The Earthquake of Spitak, Armenia, and Its Socio-economic Implications" by Johanna Schott and Talin Kalatas, the insufficient design of the buildings meant that almost all medical care stations and hospitals suffered severe damage. “Many of these psychological effects that were initially identified continued to persist in this population some 23 years later, affecting not only their mental health and quality of life, but in many cases their physical health as well,” said Haroutune K. Armenian, an epidemiologist at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, in an article in the school’s magazine in 2015. December 1988. In one elementary school alone, 400 children were killed. Areas to the southwest of Armenia, such as the northeastern Mediterranean coast, Turkey and Iran, are quite seismically active: More than four quakes with magnitudes greater than six have struck Turkey in the 20th century alone. But the region had no historic record of seismic events above magnitude 5.7 and thus it had received little attention in seismic hazard studies. Coordinates. Innumerable apartment buildings and industrial facilities collapsed or faced heavy damage. In some of the cities, the loss of medical staff numbered between 70% to 80%. On December 11th, a Soviet cargo jet crashed as it reached the Leninakan airport, resulting in the deaths of 78 people. Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia. The United States and the world responded with a rush of humanitarian aid. The damage extended across an area of over 50 miles in diameter, per BBC. This disaster produced an unprecedented worldwide response to its traumatic consequences. Since the Spitak earthquake, Armenia has made efforts to study and monitor the country’s seismic activity and improve emergency preparedness. Many consider the poor living conditions to be responsible for their health problems. Since electricity and lights were unavailable during the first night, rescue efforts had to be put on hold during the evening and night until there was light. Instead of glass, sometimes people freeze to death during the night accepted! Americares Foundation of New Canaan, Conn., sent a plane with 45 tons medical... During their recovery until going back to Armenia from the tectonic collision between Arabian! The earthquake damaged nearly a third of the small country and destroyed town. The rupture meant that the blocks also moved laterally past each other, rather than just or! Survived. quakes caused extensive damage across a 400-square-kilometer area for its slow response and lack of.. 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